Countries through which people fled: Italy

Ed Arno was born in Innsbruck in 1916 as Arnold Edelstein. Shortly after his birth, he moved with his parents to Chernivtsi/Czernowitz. Between 1936 and 1939 Arno studied art in Paris. After his return he experienced the Soviet occupation of Chernivtsi before being forced into a ghetto created by Romania, who collaborated with Nazi Germany. Later, he carried out forced labour in several camps. After his liberation in 1944 he went to Bucharest, where he worked as a caricaturist and children’s book illustrator. In 1964 he emigrated to Italy, then in 1965 to the US, where he was living at the time of his interview.  
Alicia Latzer was born in Güssing in Burgenland in 1928. After the ‘Anschluss’ in 1938, she had to leave school and the family moved to Vienna. The family managed to flee via Trieste to Argentina with forged documents in September 1938. Due to their financial situation, Latzer was separated from her parents and sister and had to live in an orphanage for some time. Latzer later undertook several trips to the USA and decided to emigrate there in 1962. Once in the USA, she worked first in the cosmetics industry and later the tourism industry. At the time of her interview, she was living in New York City.
Peter B. Neubauer was born in Krems an der Donau in 1913. In his youth, he was active in both socialist and Zionist youth movements. Neubauer began studying medicine at Vienna University, but emigrated to Switzerland after the February Uprising in 1934 where he completed his studies at the University of Bern. He worked as an assistant physician in Switzerland before emigrating in 1941 via France, Spain, and Portugal to the USA. Neubauer became an internationally established psychiatrist and university professor. At the time of his interview, he was living in New York City.
Hilda Spodek was born in Vienna in 1922 and grew up in the 16th district, where her father ran a clothing shop. After the “Anschluss” in 1938, her father was arrested and deported to Dachau and Buchenwald concentration camps. The family business was ‘aryanised’ and Spodek was unable to finish her training as a seamstress. After the release of her father, the family fled via Trieste to Palestine, where they settled in Tel Aviv. Spodek worked as a seamstress and in sales. At the time of the interview Spodek lived in Holon.
Brigitte Wachs was born in Graz in 1932 as Brigitte Welisch. After the Anschluss her father and her uncle were imprisoned in Dachau Concentration camp for a short period. After their release the family fled to the Philippines via Italy, where they experienced the Japanese occupation. In 1948, Wachs emigrated with her family to the USA. After completing high school, Wachs studied art at a college in New York. Afterwards she worked as a textile designer and later as an illustrator. At the time of the interview, Wachs was living in New Jersey. 
Susanna Yokel was born in Vienna in 1923 and attended the Schubert Realgymnasium (high school) in the ninth district until March 1938. She obtained a emigration certificate through her membership of the Zionist youth organisation "Blau-Weiß" and fled in March 1939 via Italy to Palestine where she was a co-founder of the Kfar Blum Kibbutz in 1943. In 1956 she emigrated to the US with the family she had started in Israel. At the time of her interview she was living in Bethesda, Maryland.